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In landscape lighting, the use of plants is so particular

In landscape lighting, the use of plants is so particular

  • Monday, 21 June 2021
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In landscape lighting, the use of plants is so particular

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The night landscape of the city is composed of various landscape elements, such as architecture, sculpture, bridge, installation art, plants, fountain, lawn, etc. These elements form an interrelated relationship. The landscape lighting uses the superposition, flow, translucency, refraction and other characteristics of light, combined with the above factors to carry out the secondary design of the daytime space, which requires not only the lighting function, but also the artistic decoration and the beautification of the environment.


Among them, plants are the most common landscaping factor, and plant night lighting can be seen in almost all cities. The lamps are concealed through plant shelter, lamp trough hiding, low-level cover, etc., but the light can pass through. At the same time, pay attention to anti-glare, which can not only achieve the effect of "seeing the light but not the light", but also form floating, silhouette and other characteristic lights Effect, creating an artistic conception and its imaginative sensory enjoyment.


Let's talk about landscape plant lighting from the perspective of the relationship between plants and lighting, as well as both functionality and decoration.

The influence of light source spectrum on plants

During the evolution process, plants have formed their ability to adapt to the environment. The extended light intensity of night scene lighting by about 3 hours per day breaks the original adaptability of plants to the light in the light climate zone, causing the disorder of physiological and biochemical indicators of garden plants, affecting them. Normal growth may even wither and die. Therefore, when setting up landscape plant lighting, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the light source spectrum and plant growth.

First of all, due to the large differences in surface materials and different angles of illuminated surfaces, different garden plant landscapes have different spectral reflectances. Studies have pointed out that the reflection spectrum curves of plants under natural light are relatively similar, and the night color of the plants is closer to the natural state in visual observation, which is more suitable for the night scene lighting source of garden plants, such as fluorescent lamps and LED light sources. When the spectrum is relatively discontinuous, part of the reflection spectrum is missing, which makes the night color of garden plants deviate from the natural state, or makes the plant color more biased toward the light source color of the light source itself, such as high-pressure sodium lamps, metal halide lamps, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to choose carefully when designing night scenes.

Secondly, the spectrum is an inducing signal that affects the growth and development of plants, and regulates the photosynthesis of plants. The spectra of high-pressure sodium lamps and metal halide lamps are discontinuous spectra, which only provide limited effective energy for plant growth and have little impact on plant growth; white light LED spectral energy distribution can provide blue light spectra and a small amount of red light spectra required for plant growth, which is beneficial to plant growth. Greater impact.

In short, only by understanding the effect of light on plants can we better guide the night landscape lighting and avoid the abuse of various light sources to illuminate plants.


Lighting source

Landscape lighting sources include gas discharge lamps, incandescent lamps and special light sources. In the plant lighting of general shrubs, trees, and lawns, the color rendering index of the light source is selected Ra>65, and for the lighting of flowers or special plants, the light source is selected. Color rendering index Ra>80.


The light color of the light source is particularly important in plant lighting. The same plant may have different color appearance and detail performance under different light sources, and it will give people a completely different feeling. The use of colored light to illuminate plants is also a more artistic lighting method.

White light can express the natural color of plants more naturally and meticulously, making people feel that plants are clear and clear, especially the white light of metal halide lighting can reflect the sense of hierarchy of plants.

Generally, the yellow light emitted by high-pressure sodium lamps can increase the warmth of the environment, but it is not suitable to illuminate green plants, because it will make the surface of green plants look gray and yellow, and lack vitality. For yellow plants that need to highlight the color feeling, There will be better results.

Incandescent lamp: PAR lamp mainly adopts pressure-sealed glass. PAR lamps have been used in landscape plant lighting for a long time because of their small size, good light distribution characteristics, high luminous efficiency, and simple lamp structure.

Gas discharge lamps: metal halide lamps, sodium lamps, compact fluorescent lamps. Metal halide lamps and sodium lamps have been widely used due to the continuous improvement of their color rendering index and high luminous efficiency of the light source.

Special light source: refers to LED lights composed of high-power semiconductor light-emitting devices and fiber-optic lights composed of optical fibers and electric light sources. LED lights and fiber optic lighting are mainly used for decoration and some special visual effects due to their own characteristics.


Lighting fixtures

The types of landscape lighting lamps are divided into floodlights, spotlights, buried lights, high-pole floodlights, etc. The reasonable selection of light sources and lamps plays an important role in the effect of plant lighting, and also plays an important role in lighting energy saving and lighting safety. is crucial.


Floodlight: Equipped with metal halide lamp and sodium light source, used to illuminate tall trees, large shrubs and lawns.

Spotlight: equipped with PAR lamp, compact fluorescent light source, used for single planting, flowers and other lighting.

Underground lamp: equipped with compact fluorescent lamp, metal halide lamp, PAR light source, used to illuminate the branches of large trees, single large shrubs, etc.

High pole flood light: equipped with metal halide lamp and sodium light source, it can produce top-down light effect on some plants.


Selection and installation of lamps

The main consideration when choosing a plant lighting fixture is the light control ability of the fixture, that is, the beam angle. Generally, a suitable beam angle should be selected to irradiate plants according to their height, density, shape, etc.

According to the beam angle, the lamps can be divided into three types: wide beam, medium beam and narrow beam. Among them, the wide beam is suitable for lighting that needs to emphasize the shape of plants: for trees with dense foliage, use 40°-45° light control to illuminate, you can get an ideal lighting effect; on the contrary, when you need to illuminate a narrow one For tall trees, it is best to choose a luminaire with a beam angle of 6°-20°.

Buried lamps and projection lamps are often used in green lighting, which are prone to glare. Therefore, lamps with grilles or hoods are often chosen to reduce glare.

Special attention should be paid to the selection of the location of the lamps to ensure safety. The wiring should be hidden, and pedestrians, especially children, should not be directly exposed to the exposed electrical parts. In places where buried lamps are used, the temperature of the light outlet surface should not be too high to avoid scalding pedestrians. Try not to install the floodlight lamps directly on the tree poles. Overweight lamps will have an adverse effect on the growth of the trees, and the wires entangled on the tree trunks will not only cause leakage of electricity, but also hinder the view during the day. 


The installation of luminaires needs to consider the relative relationship between the position of the light source and the position of the plant-on the front, side, back or a combination of these positions, which will determine the shape, color, detail and texture of the plant.


The forward light expresses the shape, emphasizing details and colors, and reduces or strengthens the texture by adjusting the distance between the lamp and the plant; the backlight only expresses the shape, and increases the sense of layering by separating the plant from the background; the side light emphasizes the plant texture and forms shadows , Through the geometric relationship of shadows to link different areas together.

Projection lighting: the lamp illuminates the plants vertically from a long distance to provide uniform lighting on the surface of the plant. It can be bright or soft. This method aims at achieving the overall composition.

Glance lighting: Put the lamps closer to the plants than the surface lighting, and illuminate the plants “tangentially”, emphasizing the texture. According to the size and height of the plants, choose the narrow light-emitting angle lamps, and sometimes need to install optical prisms on the lamps. Accessories such as glass form a "fan-surface light", which maximizes the use of light.

Internal lighting: Plants with more gaps between the branches and leaves and transparent leaves. You can place the lamp at the lower part of the branch near or close to the ground to create the effect of luminous branches and leaves.

Silhouette lighting: Put the lamp on the back of the plant to illuminate the wall behind the plant. The lighting shows only the shape of the plant, without texture, color and details. This method is suitable for plants with clear shapes. The whole composition is the main or relatively main visual focus.


Falling shadow lighting: that is, using upper light from the side of the tree to illuminate the tree, which can produce shadows on the nearby vertical surface, adding interest to the wall.


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